Binary encoding is a method of representing characters of text as binary. There are many different binary encodings, such as ASCII, Unicode, and Base64.
Different binary encodings can be used for different languages. ASCII is exclusively english, whereas Unicode has characters for many more languages. Each encoding may represent a character with a different number of bits. For example, Base64 represents it’s characters as 6 bits, and Unicode can sometimes use two bytes to represent a character. Many binary encodings are subsets or supersets of one another, meaning they use the same encodings with additions or removals.