LISP was designed by John McCarthy while he was at MIT in 1958. It has many different variations with the most popular modern ones being Common LISP and Scheme. It is more of a family of languages than one single language
LISP languages are recursive heavy and use S-Expressions to execute the code. S-Expressions or Symbolic expressions for tree structured data. Lisp is also a “prefix” or “Polish” notation language. So something like 4 == (2 + 2) in C would be represented as (= 4 (+ 2 2)) in LISP.
LISP has no reported CVEs but it still has very little security built in. This means that functions may be able to alter other functions and themselves.